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What is network bandwidth?

Network bandwidth is the maximum data throughput in a specific segment of a digital communication system. For example, a wireless access point rated at 300 Mbps network bandwidth, will support data transiting through the access point at a rate no greater than 300 Mbps...

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Avoiding Internet Timer Synchronization

Posted by Karl Auerbach /

The internet is a complex distributed process in which computers interact with one another over pathways that introduce delays and errors. There are many feedback loops. Some of those loops are simple to identify, such as the handshaking between the end points of a TCP connection. Other loops are harder to identify, such as the interaction of timers in ARP (address resolution), DNS (domain name system), and routing protocols (such as OSPF and BGP.)

Positive feedback loops are often merely annoying. But they can also cause more severe problems, such as connectivity failures.

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On Fuzz Testing

Posted by Karl Auerbach /

There's an old joke. It was said that English automobiles of the 1950's came equipped with a walnut inlayed toolbox containing many hammers. These ranged in size from a small jeweler's hammer up through a heavy, concrete shattering, sledge. It was said that when something in the automobile stopped working that one should begin by pounding on it with the smallest hammer. If that didn't solve the problem then one should move up to the next larger size. And so on, using ever larger hammers, until the sledge, which would reduce the automobile to a heap of shattered parts that could easily be hauled away – because the original problem was obviously insolvable.

Fuzz testing of software is somewhat like that old English automotive technique, but often without the benefit of an orderly sequence.

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Counting Bits

Posted by Karl Auerbach /

The question of “how many bits” were sent and received clearly is a matter of interest when measuring data rates or data quantities.

Mobile providers, consumer ISP's, consumers, and regulators talk a lot about their speed and (not so often) about their data caps. But rarely, if ever, are sufficient details provided:

  • You or I often can not tell which bits they are counting.
  • Nor can we tell which bits are not being counted.
  • How can we compare when we do not know what is being measured?

And it is not just a consumer issue: ISPs that exchange data with one another under contractual peering and transit arrangements need common ground when they discuss how much data each party is delivering to the other.

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Is it Okay to Make IPv4 Act Like IPv6?

Posted by Lisa Patel /

Despite what one might read in certain techno-marketing publications, IPv4 is very much alive; it has not by any stretch yet been replaced by IPv6.

So it remains important that vendors of networking products do IPv4 and do it correctly.

But some vendors appear to be getting lazy.

In particular one of the largest vendors seems to be taking a shortcut that could leave users unable to communicate even though those users have otherwise perfectly usable packet service from their network providers.

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Performance Test IOT App on ESP8266 on a Drone

Posted by Lisa Patel /

Results from Performance Testing an IOT App Controlling the ESP8266 Microcomputer Mounted on a Drone

Have you thought about how you will test the performance of IoT apps and drones? Our new video demonstrates performance testing of an IOT application controlling the ESP8266 Microcomputer mounted...

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Waveforms in KMAX

Posted by Karl Auerbach /

Real network conditions are rarely static. Real life networks suffer transient conditions – congestion builds up and dissipates, tree branches wave in the wind across radio links, long distance routing paths change, VoIP call trunks are filled with more calls during working hours than during the evening. Even something as small as a person standing near a wi-fi access point can change the carrying capacity of a network.

KMAX and our Maxwell Pro can emulate these kinds of changes.

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